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Caste and Sri Lankan marriage

Caste and Sri Lankan marriage

Caste and Sri Lankan marriage

In the modern day Sri Lankan society, the concept of caste using its pre-historic background plays distinct roles is human lifestyle, and its role turns into dominant at the juncture of the typical Sri Lankan marriage.

The research will start doors to show the normal Sri Lankan network being classic and outdated, the concept of caste is still among the major determinisms of top rated a happy and successful marriage existence.

The society we live today is definitely complex and most of us have to live with different tips and attitudes. These varied ideas and attitudes enter into light in different occasions and stages inside our lives. The idea of “Caste” can be a phenomenon one of a kind to the countries in the Indian Sub Continent and it is fossilized in the contemporary society. Gender, get older, caste, ethnicity and school play major roles in the establishment of the Sri Lankan society. While gender, era, caste and ethnicity are made a decision by one’s birth, class is set by one’s ability.

In today’s Sri Lanka culture, caste will not play a substantial role. Caste, which is set by birth makes action in various occasions and phases in one’s life in several ways and caste turns into a dominant shape in the Sri Lanka context in terms of marriages. According to Robert Knox, [1] “Sri Lankans are very selective and careful about marriages. This is a tradition not to get married to a person from a lower caste. Sinhalese could not sacrifice their dignity for an unsuitable marriage even it brings about wealth.”

A person from Colombo might listen to that caste is not as important as it was in past times and that it’s put through deterioration. Nevertheless, the next extract suggests that it isn’t hence. [2] “Sinhalese are highly concerned about the concept of caste and boundaries around it and that at least in the dried out zone the concept of caste and boundaries around it will be significant’ The above information indicates though caste isn’t highlighted in the surface level, it becomes an essential principle for the Sinhalese in practical situations.

According to E.R. Leach, [3] ‘The deterioration of the caste system contributes to the deterioration of an establishment. Marriages between unique ethnicities can be seen in the culture ‘. E.R. Leach assists one to identify the modern nature of the caste program. The notice on relationship proposals on week-end Sri Lankan newspapers highlight caste consciousness even now plays a significant role in the modern-day Sri Lankan society.

Careful studies show the idea of caste which comes from the colonial period offers undergone slight changes after the independence in 1948. As job opportunities are allocated based on educational qualifications, the caste program faces its deterioration. Following the changes brought up to the constitution in 1997 and the contemporary society being exposed to the open market made the modern society look into matters based on money. It really is evident that the nature of caste has altered, but it does not indicate that the identity one gains through caste has totally been rejected. It evidently depicts the caste consciousness of the traditional Sri Lankans involves the top in marriages.

CHAPTER 2

METHODOLOGY

AIM

The aim of the study is to review the role played out by the Sri Lankan caste system in determining a marriage and the importance of a caste to lead a cheerful and successful marriage existence.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Although caste appears on previous fashioned and unscientific basis for deciding whether two persons are compatible for relationship, historic evidence shows that this is a predictor of maintaining accomplishment.

THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Caste system is a reliable determinism of good marriages.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The sample is a randomly selected set of twenty wedded soldiers from the Sri Lanka Army representing distinct areas around the island and different castes.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

10. The assortment of data and information for this research will be very predicated on the following.

Interviews finished with the twenty soldiers.

Questionnaires directed at the twenty soldiers.

Books related to the research topic.

The Internet.

11. The books related to the research topic and the information gathered through the web opened avenues to identify the caste system in Sri Lanka and it led to write a review of literature on the type of the Sinhala marriage in chapter three. While the 4th chapter describes the impression of caste in deciding the matrimony of the determined sample, the fourth chapter deals with impact of social, economical and family conditions on deciding a caste. The conclusion is performed at the fifth chapter.

CHAPTER 3

BACKGROUND

CASTE SYSTEM AND THE TYPE OF THE SINHALA MARRIAGE

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CASTE

12. The caste system is perhaps the world’s longest surviving social hierarchy .A person is considered a member of the caste to which they’re born and remains within that caste until death, although this ranking of that caste may vary among regions and as time passes.

13. The caste system in Sri Lanka is definitely a division of society into strata. Ancient Sri Lankan texts like the Pujawaliya, Sadharmarathnavaliya and Yogarathakaraya and inscriptional proof show that the hierarchy prevailed throughout the feudal period. Caste as we realize it today has been launched to Sri Lankans by Prakrit words audio speakers from North India. The intro of Buddhism in the 3rd century BC blunted the edge of the machine to a particular extend. However, you will find a mention of king Abhaya’s boy, Saliya choosing to lose caste by marrying Ashokamala, a Candala or outcaste woman, in the next century BC, indicating that caste taboos remained in place.

14. Studies predicated on caste include allowed the society to come up with unique definitions on caste, and these definitions include allowed people to recognize the impact of caste on relationship. The idea of caste, the type of its expansion and the definitions submit under distinct areas pave a pathway to understand this concept.

15. According to Peiris Reif, [4] “The cruel nature of our ancestors led to the origin of a caste program. Thirst for power and property made them fight with each other. Therefore, a demand arose to appoint a innovator who is actually and intellectually balanced to solve the conflicts.”

16. The sources reveal that Aryans from India during their visit in the fifth century have brought down their caste program to Sri Lanka. The legend shows that the historic Sri Lankan world had different castes such as Raja, Bamunu, Welanda and Govi and the bottom for these was supplied by the various castes like Brahmans, Shathriya, Vaishya and Sudra in ancient India.

THE IDEA OF CASTE AND DEFINITIONS OF CASTE.

17. Caste is normally a phenomenon in the world and culture. Relating to Edmancy Leach, “A caste cannot stand on its own. It includes a close bond with its members through a network.”

18. Mr: Amarasekara Daya in his book titled, The Sri Lankan Contemporary society elaborates L.L.Kroeber’s (an anthropologist) suggestions. “Caste is a unit. It consists of indigenous sub devices. Such a unit likes the privileges of the contemporary society. Based on that, we can differentiate one sub product form another sub device.”

19. Mr: Amarasekara further more elaborates on caste by delivering forward measuring instruments created by Hutton, an anthropologist. They will be, [5]

Caste can be an indigenous concept.

There are specific boundaries between different castes.

A caste is a collection of circumstances which depicts bureaucracy.

It is acknowledged that through meals, physical relationships, customs and by touching an associate of a privileged caste by an associate of a discriminated caste will corrupt the privileged caste.

Caste relates to traditional occupations.

Caste is set by birth.

Caste in totality, is normally a system based on prestige.

20. W.M. Waister, an anthropologist bringing out his opinions on caste says that keeping laundry, making silver and gold jewellery were the obligations of the discriminated castes and these services were rendered only to a privileged segment of the society.

21. Though a guy from a privileged caste will keep a woman from a discriminated caste as his mistress, he’s not allowed to take foods with her. As Mr: Bryce Rayan elaborated people were allowed to share the same good for drinking water and eat together with farmers from diverse castes in the paddy field, but at a marriage, people from Govi caste were never permitted to sit with people from other castes at the desk. This clearly indicates the result of caste on matrimony.

MARRIAGE

22. The concept of marriage differs from country to country, culture to society and customs to culture. Marriage basically means the becoming a member of of the two sexes who maintain a socially approved or accepted sexual romance for reproduction. Since marriage is given so various definitions it really is believed that studying each one of these definitions will help one to understand the idea of marriage profile essay outline.

23. Regarding to Mr: Tuder Silva [6] “Marriage is the union of two or more people of both sexes for a socially recognized sexual relationship for the purpose of reproduction. Marriages are of two types, monogamy and polygamy.” The above explanation gives a concept of a matrimony. According to a affirmation by the Uk Anthropology Society, “Marriage is a unit which authorizes the kids the rights of their biological father and mother.”

24. Relating to Mr Kumara Hemantha [7] “Marriage is a special bond between two elders of both sexes based on norms, ethics, regulations. Both the elders maintain a sexual relationship for reproduction. Further, marriage is a unit produced up of a hubby, wife and their kids.”

25. The society and time are the deciding factors of rules and regulations of a marriage.

26. The old traditions of marriage and the caste possess a dinosaur influence on the relationship between your Sinhala marriage and the caste. The Sinhala contemporary society by Mr: Ralph Peiris can be a suitable example for this. Through his book he talks about the various types of marriages, unique methods of getting married, reasons for a matrimony and the openness of marriages in ancient Sri Lanka. [8] “Marriage to a person out of the caste was strictly prohibited. The ancestors didn’t desire their sons and daughters to marry a person with less status though that person is usually from the same caste.”

27. The over description demonstrates the ancient world considered caste an essential factor in the marriages, looked after shows that the Sinhala matrimony is a lose relationship.

28. Relating to Robert Knox, in 1600’s caste had a prominent place in the Sinhala matrimony. Further more, he elaborates that caste was presented with priority than wealth in old Sinhala marriage.

29. [9] “Caste discrimination is there because of the system of family. The necessity for a family arose to supply security and fulfill different needs of individuals. Therefore people began to take into account their castes in marriages.”

TYPES OF CASTES IN SRI LANKA

30. Regarding to Bryce Rayan in his book, Caste Discrimination in Sri Lanka, “Relationships between diverse castes began because of the nature of occupations and breaking up of the society into small devices.” Jana Wanshaya which is the oldest text on caste discrimination implies that there are 26 diverse castes in Sri Lanka. [10] They are,

a. Govigama

b. Salagama

c. Kamburu

d. Waduwo

e. Hannala

f. Rada

g. Ambettayo

h. Sommarayo

i. Durawo

j. Kumbhakarnayo

k. Karawo

l. Weddo

m. Berawayo

n. Hakuro

p. Hunno

q. Pannayo

r. Samanno

s. Welwaduwo

t. Gahalayo

u. Paduwo

v. Malakarayo

w. Kinnarayo

x. Rodee

y. Olee

z. Indrapalanagayo

aa. Chandalayo

31. According to Mr. Kalinga T. Silva’s analysis on castes, [11] there will be fifteen castes in Sri Lanka. Though there exists a compromise about the most notable and the lower levels of the caste system in Sri Lanka, there are various arguments about the center level. According to Mr. Silva, Sri Lanka is divided into two parts as up nation and low country. While people from Patti and Gahala castes live in the up country, persons from Karawa, Salagama, Durawa and Hunnu reside in the reduced country.

Order ( This is simply not yet been finalized )

Name of the Caste

Traditional Occupation

Percentage of Sinhala population

Level

01

Govigama

Radala

Land Owners

0.001

01

Govi

Farmers

49

Patti

Herdsmen

0.001

02

Karava

Fishermen

5

02

03

Salagama

Cinnamon Peelers

04

Durava

Toddy Tappers

3

05

Hunu

Quicklime Industry

0.002

06

Achari / Galladu / Navanandana

Traditional Artisans

0.0005

3

07

Hena / Rada

Traditional Washmen

3

08

Wahumpura / Hakuru

Traditional Makers of Jaggery

12.5

09

Kumbal / Badahela

Traditional Makers of Pots

2.5

10

Dura/ Wellandura/ Bodhi

pannadura

Safeguard Srimaha Bodhi

0.001

11

Nakathi / Berawva

Traditional Dancers and Astrologers

3

12

Bathgama / Padu

Servants and Porters

18

13

Gahala

Traditional Drum Beaters

0.001

4

14

Kinthara

Weaving Mats

0.3

15

Rodi/ Hulawali

Traditional Beggars / Traditional Makers of Ekel Brooms

0.001

Other*

1.493

* Castes which participate in the other category will be Porava, Kara, Olee, Palee, Barber and Ganthara and the number is quite low.

33. Mr. Kalinga Silva in his research says, [12] ‘Though caste can be put through deterioration, that in the Asian network it becomes dominant at three situations. Marriage is one of them. A survey conducted with estate workers who’ve an Indian origin indicates that caste is a significant determinism for 90% of their marriages.” Climbing up the monetary and social hierarchy is the second occasion the caste becomes crucial. The concept of caste is highlighted at this occasion.

34. Using the idea of caste as a weapon in the political battle field may be the third occasion where this idea becomes prominent. The following extract taken from Jamnis Tiggin’s studies about Sri Lanka shows the way, the idea of caste dominated the Sri Lankan political arena.

“W!;a l=mdГ†h uq;a l=mdГ†h

.fГ l=mdГ†hg ckaoh fouq'”

35 This was taken from a leaflet distributed during an election advertising campaign and “Gama” here means a caste.

CHAPTER 4

DATA

REGIONAL REPRESENTATION AND IDEA OF CASTE

36. The following table shows the randomly selected set of twenty soldiers from the Sri Lanka Army representing numerous regions around the island and different castes to conduct a research on the role performed by the Sri Lankan caste program in identifying a marriage and the value of a caste to lead a happy and successful marriage lifestyle.

Husband’s caste

Wife’s caste

Number of families

Govigama

Govigama

09

Karawa

Karawa

02

Bathgama

Bathgama

01

Hakuru

Hakuru

01

Govigama

Hena

01

Govigama

Salagama

01

Govigama

Padu

01

Padu

Govigama

01

Karava

Salagama

02

Achari

Govigama

01

Total

20

37. The sample represents 45% of Govigama, 10% of Karava, 5% of Bathgama, 5% of Hakuru and 35% of mixed castes.

Chart 4.1 – Cast of sample

38. The regional representation of the sample is really as follows.

Srl no

Husband’s caste

Wife’s caste

Region

01

Govigama

Govigama

Mahiyanganaya

02

Govigama

Govigama

Bibile

03

Govigama

Govigama

Badulla

04

Govigama

Govigama

Padaviya

05

Govigama

Govigama

Welioya

06

Govigama

Govigama

Hakmana

07

Govigama

Govigama

Kanthale

08

Govigama

Govigama

Horana

09

Govigama

Govigama

Puswellawa

10

Karawa

Karawa

11

Karawa

Karawa

12

Bathgama

Bathgama

Puttalam

13

Hakuru

Hakuru

Kegalle

14

Govigama

Salagama

Kamburupitiya

15

Govigama

Hena

Veyangoda

16

Govigama

Padu

Kurunagala

17

Padu

Govigama

Matale

18

Achari

Govigama

Ambanpola

19

Karava

Salagama

Elpitiya

20

Karava

Salagama

.Galle

SRI LANKAN MARRIAGE AND THE Affect OF RACE AND RELIGION ON IT

39. Eighteen soldiers of the sample emphasize the importance the need for equality between races 90%in marriage. The nature of family and requirements of the society have made them feel that way. As a lot of the sample signifies the rural areas of the island, they feel that if indeed they do mix marriages they might come to be neglected by their father and mother and relatives, and therefore finish up in unsuccessful and unhappy marriages.

Chart 4.2 Matrimony and races

40. Eighteen (90%) soldiers representing the sample wonder equality between religions is vital to have effective marriages. Regarding to them, the Sri Lankan village is founded on temple, and when the couple are from two diverse religions it really is impractical to go to two different religious spots simultaneously. Further, they believe it really is hard to practise various observances under one roof.

Chart 4.3 Marriage and religions

SRI LANKAN Relationship AND CASTE

41. Sinhalese believe race and religion are important factors in marriage. Regular Sinhalese confide in equality between castes within their marriages. While thirteen (65%) soldiers of the sample consider their partners ought to be from the same caste, seven (35%) soldiers usually do not believe so.

Chart 4.4 Matrimony and caste

42. Arranged marriage continues to be generally practised in Sri Lanka, but a growing number of young people today refuse arranged marriage. In arranged matrimony caste becomes a crucial consideration. In like marriages the few thinks only about complementing their races, religions, ideas, views and passions. For them, caste can be a matter and the study shows that almost all of the couples have received the blessings of their parents.

43. The relationship proposals on weekend newspapers highlight the fact that caste is a major determinism in arranged marriages. The following table is extracted from a survey carried out by Mr. Daya Amarasekara on matrimony proposals in newspapers.

Caste Male Woman Total Percentage

Govi 31 48 79 67’5 ]

Karawa 06 07 13 11’0 ]

Durawa 03 02 05 4’3 ]

Salagama 02 02 04 3’5 ]

Deva – 02 02 1’7 ]

Rajaka 02 02 04 3’4 ]

Wellala 01 02 03 2’5 ]

Hetti – 01 01 0’9 ]

Other 01 03 04 3’4 ]

Total 46 69 115 100’0 ]

44. According to the table, the majority is Govigama and the minority is usually Hetti. Mr. Amarasekara tells that table depicts the spread of castes all over the island.

45. When asked from Sri Lankan ladies about their views on matrimony and caste it is evident that ladies from higher castes usually do not want to get married to males from lower castes. These ladies do not want their children to be treated differently by the society as a result of their fathers’ surnames.

OTHER FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE MARRIAGE

46. Another element which influences modern marriage is the economy of each individual. The research shows that people are interested in getting married to persons from the same economical level or above. Persons expect to lead simple and secure marriage lives by engaged and getting married to a person from the same economic level or above.

47. A lot of the women in the present day contemporary society prefer to get married to guys who are even more educated than them.

CHAPTER 5

DATA ANALYSIS

MATCHING CASTE AND ITS INFLUENCE TO A SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE LIFE

48. While thirteen soldiers out of your sample have married women from the same caste seven soldiers own married from several castes. The following table depicts the present status of the relationship lives of the thirteen soldiers whose spouses happen to be from the same caste.

Srl no

Husband’s caste

Wife’s caste

Region

Present status of matrimony life

01

Govigama

Govigama

Mahiyanganaya

Unsuccessful

02

Govigama

Govigama

Bibile

Successful

03

Govigama

Govigama

Badulla

Divorced

04

Govigama

Govigama

Padaviya

Planning to get divorced

05

Govigama

Govigama

Welioya

Unsuccessful

06

Govigama

Govigama

Hakmana

07

Govigama

Govigama

Kanthale

08

Govigama

Govigama

Horana

09

Govigama

Govigama

Puswellawa

10

Karawa

Karawa

11

Karawa

Karawa

12

Bathgama

Bathgama

Puttalam

Unsuccessful

13

Hakuru

Hakuru

49. According to the table, the relationship lives of both families representing Govi caste (Row 1 and 5) and the family representing Bathgama (Row 12 ) don’t succeed.

50. The following reasons have made their relationship lives unsuccessful.

a. In line with the soldiers from rows 1 and 5, their marriages are a failure due to their wives’ unlawful affairs. Since these soldiers come home once in every two or three months, there will do freedom and opportunities because of their wives to have illegitimate affairs and this has ended their marriages in divorces.

b. In line with the soldier from row 12, the reason behind his marriage being unsuccessful is the mismatch of concepts between himself and his partner. He says that his wife under no circumstances agrees with his suggestions and works relating to her personal plans and ideas. They are determined to acquire divorced after being wedded for eight years because of mismatch of ideas.

51. The on top of study shows that although castes match, these persons are determined to get divorced because of external forces. This is a very common phenomenon in today’s day Sri Lankan contemporary society.

52. The next table shows today’s status of the marriage lives of seven soldiers of the sample who have married out of their castes.

Srl no

Husband’s caste

Wife’s caste

Region

Present status of marriage life

01

Govigama

Salagama

Kamburupitiya

Unsuccessful

02

Govigama

Hena

Veyangoda

Unsuccessful

03

Govigama

Padu

Kurunagala

Unsuccessful

04

Padu

Govigama

Matale

Unsuccessful

05

Achari

Govigama

Ambanpola

Successful

06

Karava

Salagama

Elpitiya

Successful

07

Karava

Salagama

.Galle

Successful

53. Though the families from rows 1,2,3 and 4 have done their best to lead argumentative topics a cheerful and successful matrimony lives, the insults by the parents and relatives of the get together which symbolizes Govi caste have manufactured their marriages scatter. In spouse and children gatherings, the partners who represent the lower caste have been put through inferiority. Two females who signify Govi caste in rows 4 and 5 have been outcasted by their families because of their marriages to men from lower castes.

54. Parents and relatives of the soldiers in rows 1 and 2 totally disregard the occurrence of their daughters in regulation at relatives gatherings and actually invitations to special occasions are sent only to the male partner. This indicates how embarrassed the wife becomes before her husband’s parents and relatives.

55. The lovers from rows 5, 6 and 7 lead cheerful and successful relationship lives though they are from two numerous castes. Parents and family members of both the get-togethers have mutual understanding plus they respect each others thoughts, views, attitudes and interests.

56. The study unveils that persons from Govi caste are considering dominating the contemporary society, and the curiosity on the idea of caste by the various other castes are incredibly low when compared with Govi caste.

57. Nevertheless, the caste awareness of the Sinhalese in arranged marriage is at an increased level.

CHAPTER 6

SUMMARY

58. The aim of this sociological study is to review the role performed by the Sri Lankan caste program in determining a marriage and the importance of a caste to lead a content and successful marriage existence. The ancient classic Sinhala marriage and its own marriage with caste and the position played by caste in present Sinhala matrimony were studied in depth to come to a conclusion.

59. The sample of randomly determined twenty soldiers from the Sri Lankan Army representing diverse regions and castes help discuss at length a sensitive topic which persons very rarely speak in public. Interviews with the sample assisted to reveal the next facts.

a. Race and faith have played a dominant function in choosing the marriages of the

sample.

Sinhala and Buddhist back grounds of the sample have got motivated the sample to avoid marriages with distinct ethnicities.

60. Caste plays a significant role in Sinhala relationship. Folks from Govi caste want to keep their authority while various other castes make less efforts to maintain authority. It is evident that Govi caste is considered as the very best caste but no conclusion has been made about the positions of the various other castes. It is evident that persons from larger castes reject persons from lower castes and persons from lower castes generally make an effort to select partners from bigger castes in marriages.

61. Before, almost all of the marriages were organized ones , but today most are love marriages. In the present day society, people are interested in finding their own partners according to their level of education, interests, economic status, regional distinctions and attitudes. Though it seems that caste isn’t considered as a significant determinism in marriage, it becomes prominent when one consider the reactions of father and mother and relatives of an increased caste spouse who has selected a lesser caste person. Though the program of caste is put through decay it has a dinosaur effect in marriages, and top rated a cheerful and successful marriage lifestyle.

62. The research also reveals that when compared with men, women are even more considering marrying a person from the same caste or an increased caste. As the surname of the father automatically goes to the children, women be sure that they do not marry men help to make from lower castes. The ladies also do not like to live with the father and mother and the family members of their husbands’ because they are scared of the insults of the husbands’ parents and relatives.

63. The above information depict that caste performs a major purpose in the Sri Lankan relationship, and the attitudes of parents and relatives of the two partners are essential in deciding a marriage.

CHAPTER 7

RECCOMANDATION

63. The analysis implies that in marriages, the idea of caste is certainly dominant. As the residents of a democratic culture, people have been given the rights through the constitution to live openly within the accepted rules and regulations of the federal government. Caste is not a barrier to a person to receive proper education and move up the social hierarchy. Further more, one has the legal authority to change one’s surname that is a determinism of their caste.

64. Though caste is known as in marriage, it is not a barrier to have got like affairs and sexual interactions. A person from less caste who is at the top level in the contemporary society has the right to receive due value. Caste becomes a very important factor just in arranged marriages.

65. Today, just about all social interactions happen without reference to caste. In towns, villages, factories, offices and schools participants of different groups interact and work together talking and joking freely, without feeling uncomfortable about their caste differences. Career, health and educational possibilities are officially available to all, without prejudice predicated on caste. So that it is high time for all the Sri Lankans to discard the system of caste and appearance at the contemporary society with positive attitudes.

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